Resilience: an ability to recover from or adjust easily to misfortune or change. Merriam Webster 2020
Although I like the conciseness of Merriam Webster’s definition of resilience, I believe resilience often includes the ability to recover from more than misfortune. In the case of genocide, for instance, resilience requires the ability to recover from not only bad luck and an unhappy situation, but also the unthinkable, the unspeakable.
Two stories that meet my evolving definition of resilience stem from two separate events: the Holocaust and the Rwandan genocide (which happened just 26 years ago, with nearly 1,000,000 people murdered over the course of 100 days).
I first met Irving Roth in 2008, when I traveled to New York City to participate in the TOLI (The Olga Lengyel Institute of Holocaust Studies and Human Rights) Summer Institute. Over the course of two weeks, we (25 teachers) joined Holocaust survivors and scholars to think creatively and collaboratively about how to teach the Holocaust, genocide, and social justice issues.
Irving joined us at Olga’s table on Day 2 of the Institute. As he shared memories from his childhood, his experiences in Auschwitz, a “death march,” and his last days in Buchenwald, I wondered how did he do it? How did he survive unthinkable, unspeakable events and still find the strength, will, and even humor to move on and build a new life in America? Each time I listen to his interview, I stand in awe of Irving’s unwavering resilience. (Click on the image below to access Irving’s interview.)
Last week, I connected again with Irving, this time via a Zoom call, three days after his 90th birthday. Yes, he continues to redefine resilience, ending the session with a call to action. #NeverForget #NeverAgain.
The summer of 2016, I joined humanitarian Carl Wilkens on a life-changing trip to Rwanda. Carl was the only American to remain in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide. As we traveled across the country, visiting key sites and memorials and meeting with genocide survivors, we marveled at Rwandans’ ability to forgive and to rebuild their neighborhoods, communities, and country. We saw resilience redefined and at the forefront of everyday actions as such as village members coming together on a Saturday morning to work on a community project (gacaca) or the Rwandan men’s cycling team in training for upcoming competitions:
Thanks to Zoom, I’m able to reconnect with Carl and our fellow travelers for a weekly call. We are currently watching Ghosts of Rwanda as part of a collaborative discussion.
The film provides a timeline and a window into the genocide – including the role Carl played, remaining behind to help in any way he could, while the rest of the world turned a blind eye.
During our trip, we had the good fortune to have Johnson with us. Each day Johnson helped us step back in time to 1994, when as a 9-year old, he witnessed what no child should: the brutal murder of his mother and baby sister, slain by soldiers bearing machetes, as Johnson hid behind nearby bushes.
Thanks to the Gisimba Orphanage and a courageous act by Carl, Johnson survived the genocide, went on to complete his secondary schooling, as well as college, with a year spent at Texas Christian University. He now works for the Rwandan government, has married, and recently became a father.
Like Irving Roth, Johnson and Carl do not define their lives based on the past (the unthinkable, the unspeakable), but rather on their ability to look to the future and to look for the good – and create it.
Drawing from their stories, I define resilience as: an ability to recover, over time, from misfortune, including the unthinkable/the unspeakable, by remembering and learning from the past while looking to and working towards the future.
“What you do next is what defines you.” Rwandan saying
I frequently return to a blog post I wrote four years ago: Rwanda – Looking for the Good. Joining Carl Wilkens for the 2016 trip to the “land of 1000 hills” was truly life-changing. I thank Seth Altman for encapsulating the experience in a single sentence, “I may be leaving Rwanda, but Rwanda will never leave me.”
Each day, as we visited sites where evil things happened during the 1994 genocide and talked with survivors, we stood back in awe of the many ways Rwandans were moving forward, willing to forgive – or confess to – unspeakable acts (often inflicted by or on their own neighbors). We also found inspiration in the stories of those few who crossed the line from bystander to upstander.
“Our family’s story could have ended that Thursday night, April 7, along with the stories of so many Rwandan families who lost their lives, but we are alive today because mothers, aunts, and grandmas stood up for us. And to think they were armed only with stories.” Carl Wilkens
On Tuesday, April 7, our Rwandan group, AKA Peter’s Passengers (Peter drove our van across valleys and over the hills of Rwanda), and others who had traveled with or worked with Carl, joined him for a Zoom call. April 7 is Rwanda’s Day of Remembrance, the day the genocide of Hutu against Tutsi was ignited.
We began the conference with a moment of silence in commemoration.
Each day of our Rwandan journey we stood in silence at sites and monuments where so many lives had been taken or forever changed. And each one of those heart wrenching stops was followed by an opportunity to “look for the good” – from a visit to the Sweet Dreams ice cream shop (first female owned and operated business) following our morning at the Murambi Memorial…
…to standing off on the side of the road and cheering on the Rwandan men’s bicycling team following our morning at the Mahama Refugee Camp.
Every day, every stop, every minute, “looking for the good” was integral to our travels with Carl.
And so with our Tuesday Zoom call, our moment of silence was then followed by so many events to celebrate since our trip: marriages, parenthood (even grand parenthood), and births – including the joyful news and photos of Johnson, who survived the genocide as a young orphan, and this week celebrates the arrival of his son, Rumuri (“Light”):
To our Rwandan Family, Teresa and I send our love and Prayers as we remember the 1994 genocide against the Tutsi.. The loss of so many innocent lives has overwhelmed us at times. I want you to know that your lives, your stories have gotten me back up on my feet again and again. I have learned so much from your courage, your patience, determination, and your creativity! Your Home Grown SolutionsYou have shown me again and again what it means to not give up. And beyond not giving up you have shown what it means to love. I will never forget the day when some of you said, “It is our pain that drives us to deeper love”. And I had to think about that. I had not thought about love in that way before. Love as a life raft, as a rescue boat. Practicing love, a radical love, as a way for saving ourselves from drowning. Thank you for that!Very dear friends of ours just had a beautiful baby boy in Kigali yesterday. – Such joy really stands out in this month of April , these 100 days. While his dad and I were excitedly sending messages back-and-forth on WhatsApp, I have to admit that I was also thinking that so many family members were not there to welcome this little guy – But their legacy of love and integrity is welcoming him through his mom and dad.His dad said today, “Since the arrival of Rumuri (light), everything has changed!”The legacy of Love and integrity will never be snuffed out. And that is why we remember, we remember the love and courage and the wonderful legacy of those who were needlessly killed.And in the remember must unite, unite during this pandemic and unite during this time of remembering.And the renewal comes, the renewal comes. Different time tables for different people.We must come out the other side of this pandemic renewed just like you our family in Rwanda has shown us that out of the worst experiences in life we can find renewal. Thank you for your example.Courage and blessing to each member of our Rwandan family, We love you and are holding you very very tight in our hearts!
And throughout the conference, just like during the trip, our group shared words to live by whenever or wherever we find ourselves in trying or unprecedented times:
“Rwanda is a pathway to teach students about hope.” Leigh-Anne DeDario Hendricks
“Don’t send your anger into the next generation.” Rwandan survivor at the Kigali Memorial – Shared by Megan Helberg
“Remember not only the families lost, but also their legacies.” Carl Wilkens
“One evening, when we were already resting on the floor of our hut, dead tired, soup bowls in hand, a fellow prisoner rushed in and asked us to run out to the assembly grounds and see the wonderful sunset. Standing outside we saw sinister clouds glowing in the west and the whole sky alive with clouds of ever-changing shapes and colors, from steel blue to blood red. The desolate grey mud huts provided a sharp contrast, while the puddles on the muddy ground reflected the glowing sky. Then, after minutes of moving silence, one prisoner said to another, “How beautiful the world could be…” Holocaust survivor Viktor Frankl, Man’s Search for Meaning – Shared by co-facilitator of the Zoom conference, Robbie Ross
“Look for the good – or create it.” Carl Wilkens
What had been scheduled for a 60-minute call extended to over 90 beautiful minutes. Carl brought the call to a close with an invitation to virtually join the group conversations every week till the corona virus has been conquered.
One of the Zoom participants reminded us that “Rwanda survived the genocide; it will survive the pandemic.”
And so will we.
Stay well. Stay safe. “Look for the good – and create it.”
Question: How do you talk about and teach difficult topics, including the unthinkable, the unspeakable?
Answer: You look for the good.
Carl Wilkens – explaining value of elephant poop.
This summer I traveled to Rwanda, Africa, with the incredible Carl Wilkens, director of the World Outside My Shoes Foundation – and the only American to remain in Rwanda during the 1994 genocide. Without a doubt, this trip was the most thought-provoking, heart-wrenching, uplifting ten days ever. Each day was beautifully planned with visits to historic sites, meeting with genocide witnesses, government officials (Rwandan and U.S.), community leaders, and activists – now living together, committed to learning from the past and moving forward.
To actually visit Rwanda was an opportunity to step into its past and to witness the power of reconciliation and forgiveness and, equally important, the impact a single person can have when he/she has the courage to step up and take action for others.
Photo on left: Rwanda, landlocked African nation – from Tubbs, CC BY SA. Photo on the right: from CIA files, in the Public Domain.
For a quick, but excellent, introduction to the causes and impact of the genocide, please read my fellow traveler Timothy Redmond’s recent post: Reflections from Rwanda. Tim’s article will also give you more background on Carl’s courage and commitment to take a stand against genocide. Or, if you want a resource aimed at students, download fellow traveler James Ingram’s Never Again, a “textbook” he co-authored last year during his senior year in high school.
Arrival at Kigali Airport – the journey begins
A large part of what made the trip to Rwanda so memorable was a combination of Carl’s leadership talents, combined with our wonderful team (16 educators, 1 student, 1 pastor), the Iris Guest House (our cozy home-base), our bus driver Peter, our frequent tour guide and shopping companion Johnson – and the beauty of Rwanda, “land of a thousand hills.”
Late afternoon view from my room of Iris entry – and our magical bus
As jet-lagged as we were upon arriving at the hotel (I’d been traveling almost two days (from Sacramento to JFK to Qatar to Uganda to Rwanda), we quickly unpacked, met out front for a getting-to-know-you activity, and then headed out and up the hill for a walking tour of our neighborhood en route to a local cafe for our first dinner together. I think we were all drawn into the beauty of Kigali as we walked past the French Embassy, the President’s Compound, the Hotel des Mille Collines (AKA Hotel Rwanda), all accented by lush tropical gardens. A perfect start to an amazing journey.
Day 1 – The next morning, our first full day in Rwanda, we stepped into the recent past with a trip to Kigali’s Genocide Memorial. Before entering, Carl reminded us to intentionally take “positive snapshots” throughout the day to balance images from a site that memorializes a tragic event.
Entering the Kigali Genocide Memorial
The Memorial serves as the final resting place for over 250,000 victims of the genocide and provides a window into the brutality of this horrifying event. But the Memorial also includes an education center and a beautiful garden that offers visitors, many of them survivors of the genocide, a peaceful place to honor those who died and to find strength in their daily lives to keep moving forward. Click here for a interactive Google street view from a section of the gardens.
Garden spot- Kigali Genocide Memorial
So although this trip may already sound like “dark tourism” (“travel to places historically associated with death and tragedy” – Wikipedia), Carl guided discussions on why it is important “not to hate evil more that you love good.” No matter what site we were visiting, we had only to look around and see what a vibrant country and culture Rwanda is today.
Case in point: From the Kigali Genocide Memorial, our next stop was the Kigali Public Library, a beautiful space, from the entry space to the rooftop cafe.
A welcoming entrance to the Kigali Public Library, topped by stunning views from the rooftop terrace and cafe.
From the Library, it was on to the Belgian Memorial, which honors the ten Belgian UN peacekeepers murdered early in the genocide by Hutu extremists hoping to spark the exodus of the UN forces. Their goal was achieved, clearing the way for a full-scale genocide to quickly explode.
Belgian UN Peacekeepers Memorial – Kigali, Rwanda
As we traveled across Kigali on our way back to our hotel and a fabulous dinner, the group bonding was clearly happening. Between our debriefing of the day’s events, Carl’s pointing out key sites from the past and present (including his former home and neighborhood), and the regular injection of humor and hope, our bus became as much a home base to us as the Iris Guest House.
Following a pattern set on this first day of exploring Rwanda, every day was a near magical combination and balance of stepping into and studying Rwanda’s dark past but also marveling at and celebrating the resilient spirit and determination of a country to unite as one people.
On Day 2, our first stopping point was Nyamata Church, a short drive from Kigali in the Bugasera region, to where over 10,000 Tutsi had fled, believing the church and grounds would be a safe haven. That was not the case. There were less than 100 survivors. Within the church, there are over 6,000 bodies buried – men, woman, and children – all victims of a brutal, brutal attack by the Interahamwe (the militia supported by the Hutu-led government). The church also includes a stand-alone coffin that is a memorial to Mugando, a young woman whose violent murder was proceeded by a violent rape, too often included in the genocide toolkit.
Entering Nyamata to honor those murdered during April 14, 1994, attack
As we gathered in Nyamata’s peaceful garden to reflect on what had transpired at this site during the genocide, children from the school next door came out for recess. Joyful voices, laughter, and soccer served as a reminder that Rwanda is indeed moving forward.
Heading out to Nyamata garden – Photo from James Ingram
How did we find the good after a morning spent at Nyamata? We climbed back into our bus and headed down the road to Mayanga to visit the Millennium Village, a project started in 2005 by a group of visionary professors from Columbia University who sought to improve rural, impoverished areas of Africa by creating sustainable villages through agriculture, education, healthcare, and local business start-ups. The project includes a reconciliation village, where currently about 300 Tutsi and Hutu live side by side, both survivors and perpetrators of the genocide.
We gathered together in a shaded area and listened to villagers share their stories. Silas, a perpetrator, shared that he lives next door to a pastor – whose family he murdered. He shared how the pastor taught him about the power of forgiveness. Silas’s testimony was followed by Lorensia’s, a strong woman whose husband was killed during the genocide. Following the testimonies, we mingled with the villagers, including beautiful children and a dynamic group of women weavers (whose baskets are now proudly displayed in my home).
Lorensia, Millennium Village
Millennium Village basket weaver
Children from Millennium Village, Rwanda
Another highlight from the afternoon included a visit to the Millennium Village Center, where we were treated to music and dance from local teenagers. What I didn’t realize until after their performance was that we were witnessing another step forward for Rwanda: women are now allowed to play the drums, which happens about mid-way through the dance (shown in second clip):
Day 3 – Had I traveled to Rwanda on my own, I probably would have passed on visiting Prison 1930 (Nyarugenge Prison), based on my U.S. prison mindset. But from the moment we entered the grounds, I knew I was witnessing a lesson our country could learn from Rwanda. Prison 1930 was constructed by Rwanda’s Belgian colonizers. Prior to colonization, “Gacaca” was Rwanda’s system of restorative justice, a system the country has since revived, in which villagers sit together to decide on a fair consequence for a crime. Today, Prison 1930 has moved from punitive justice to restorative justice.
As our bus approached the prison gates, we could see visiting family members entering the grounds – with an absence of security checks. We were warmly greeted by Pelloy Gakwaya*, Director of the Rwandan Justice System. *Note: Rwanda has a 30% rule that requires businesses, including government, to hire a minimum of 30% female employees.
Entering Prison 1930 – A view from our bus
As we walked across the courtyard, what we did not see were shackles, guns, or clubs. Family members came bearing gifts. Joyful greetings and conversations were happening. I had to remind myself that I was in a prison.
The purpose of our visit was to meet with three inmates who were “genocideiers.” We entered a large conference room where Pelloy introduced us to Olive, director of Prison 1930. Olive explained that today’s prison system is structured on community life outside the prison walls. The system provides job training, support groups, counseling, opportunities for service learning, and even leadership roles.
Carl, Olive, and Pelloy – Prison 1930. Photo by JP Bennett
We were joined shortly by three prisoners (2 males, 1 female), all three imprisoned for their roles in the genocide. Sezibera (male) shared his crime of distributing guns and being a genocide leader, although he lost his position for harboring a Tutsi in his home. He asked that we tell the stories of the genocide and bring it to the world. Mulamini (female), who spoke beautiful English, shared about growing up as a Hutu in the 1970’s. She recalled school days when teachers promoted hateful anti-Tutsi propaganda. Although she was married to a Tutsi, who was able to escape with their children, Mulamini joined the government forces to avoid being accused of being a sympathizer. She currently serves as the president of the prisoners’ council and is also the director of the unity and reconciliation club for the women’s section of the prison. Mulamini requested that, as educators, we think about what we share with our students, who often look to their teachers for truth. Like Sezibera, she also asked that we become a voice for the stories of the genocide.
The third prisoner, Gregoire, needs his own paragraph. Having read I’m not Leaving, I knew about the commanding officer whose troops surrounded the Gisimba Orphanage (Day 5 visit) with the plan to slaughter all who were hiding. Carl had also shared with us that two years ago he visited the prison, met with and – 20 years later – recognized Gregoire as that commanding officer. At that time, Carl found it difficult to even have a conversation with Gregoire. Two years later, they entered the conference room together. In his testimony, Gregoire admitted that a plan had been in place to kill Carl. Today he gives thanks for Carl’s heroism and for all he did for Rwanda. Carl responded by telling him he looks forward to joining him on the journey of forgiveness. This is Carl. This is restorative justice. This is Rwanda.
Day 4 – We boarded our bus at 5:30 this morning to head to Akagera National Park, picking up Johnson on the way. Johnson, now 31, lost his entire family during the genocide. Part of the loss included watching his mother and baby sister murdered at a roadblock. Having survived the genocide as a 9-year-old orphan, he still managed to complete his secondary schooling and move on to college, with a year spent in an intensive English program at Texas Christian University. His English is excellent. His story is inspiring. His tour guiding skills are exceptional.
Entering Akagera National Park
Akagera water buffalo
Akagera National Park – looking across lake to Tanzania
The hippos had a huge presence and made it known.
Akagera National Park – hippo heaven
Hippopotamus gathering in Akagera – not a good idea to get any closer than this! Photo by follower traveler James Ingram.
Left to right, talking with Johnson over sound of snorting hippos; Johnson and Carl capturing the moment; and who knew that hippo poop is actually pretty light and lace like?!
Getting kind of up close and personal with lone giraffe at Akagera National Park.
A day at Akagera National Park was almost a total break from our genocide studies. Although the park is still recovering from a devastating loss of wildlife during the genocide, the government is actively working to restore Akagera to its pre-1994 rich ecosystem.
The trip back to Kigali included a beautiful setting sun. Being located so close to the equator, every day the sun starts to rise at 6:00 a.m. and set at 6:00 p.m. (“6 up; 6 down”).
Sunset on trip back to Kigali from Akagera National Park.
Day 5 – Sunday in Kigali – Following breakfast at the Iris (love starting the day with Rwandan coffee, fresh mango juice, and pastries!), a group of us walked down our hill and over to the Pariossee Sainte Famille Church to attend a morning mass. There are many stories from the genocide regarding the role of Catholic clergy – as upstanders, bystanders, and even perpetrators.
Sunday in Kigali – Sainte Famille Church
Although Sainte Famille was not always a safe haven during the genocide, attending a mass there today is definitely a joyful event, with singing and dancing in the aisles an integral part of the experience. The walk back to the Iris was a time to share what we had seen and learned in our first days in Rwanda.
Savoring the Rwanda experience on our Sunday morning walk back from Sainte Famille Church
So many colors and patterns to choose from – Patricia’s stand, Kigali Market.
Next stop: A shopping expedition to the Kigali Market, where we spent two hours, but could have easily spent more time browsing the endless aisles of merchandise. Having Johnson join us and mentor us in the art of bartering was an added bonus. I decided the best way to bring home the colors of Rwanda would be through their bright, bold, stunning fabrics.
From the Kigali Market, we headed to the Gisimba Orphanage. I will remember this stop in our journey for a long time to come. Johnson would now transition from being our market place guide to helping us step back in time to 1994, when as a 9-year old, he witnessed and lived through the genocide. We gathered outside a window where Johnson vividly remembers looking out and seeing Carl coming down the hill with water and supplies.
For the orphans at Gisimba, escaping the sounds and acts of violence surrounding the orphanage was not possible, as Johnson shares in this short clip (my apologies for not turning the phone from vertical to horizontal).
Johnson also shared about Damas Gisimba, director of the orphanage, who was a courageous upstander, putting his life on the line daily to protect the children – and a small group of adults also hidden away in a tiny room. Because of Damas, the Gisimba orphanage had truly become a supportive, nurturing, and safe home.
Catching Carl by surprise, Johnson completed our tour of the grounds by leading us into a room filled with people – some of them orphans at Gisimba during the genocide – who wanted to thank Carl for what he had done for the orphanage. Many of us reached for Kleenex as we watched the former orphans step up to embrace Carl and share their memories and stories. How do you thank someone who risked his life over and over to pass through roadblocks to bring food, water, and blankets to the orphans? The group acknowledged Carl as “the sun in the middle of horror who gave us hope” and presented him with a beautiful painting that symbolizes his legacy.
Gisimba staff and former orphans honor Carl Wilkens as their light in a dark time.
Halfway through our Rwanda journey and already so much to celebrate!
Day 6 – Murambi – As we boarded the bus for our 3-hour drive to the Murambi Genocide Memorial, site of one of the most brutal mass murders of the genocide, we knew this would not be an easy visit. We began a discussion on how sites can have harsh memories, but if we look back at our evening celebration at Gisimba Orphanage, it is possible to create new memories, happy memories alongside the bad. We cannot erase the bad memories, but we can balance them with the good.
As we arrived at Murambi, I tried to hang on to the many beautiful people, sites, and events I had been inspired by thus far. Looking for the good is a challenge at Murambi, which before the genocide was a school. As with churches, many Tutsi mistakenly believed they would be safe on school grounds. On April 16, of the 65,000 who fled to the school, 45,000 were murdered. Almost all who escaped were killed within the next few days.
Entering the Murambi Genocide Memorial
What is unique about this genocide memorial is that as you tour the classrooms, whole bodies are on display, half-decomposed, mummified by lime, which preserved and turned the bodies white. Out of respect for the dead, we were asked not to take pictures. To see the skeletal remains of so many men, women, and children, who in a single day, lost their lives is difficult to take in.
As I wandered through the exhibit hall, I came upon the unforgettable words of Feliciene Ntabengwa:
Hauntingly powerful words from the Murambi Genocide Memorial
We ended our tour of Murambi with time to walk the grounds, take in the beauty of the surrounding hills, and quietly reflect on a tragedy that should never be forgotten.
Finding solace in the beauty of the hills surrounding the Murambi Genocide Memorial. Photo by fellow traveler James Ingram.
Our trip back to Kigali included a stop at Sweet Dreams, Rwanda’s one-and-only ice cream shop. We needed that after leaving Murambi. Thank goodness for inspirational stories that include ice cream. The shop is another success story and step forward for the women of Rwanda. The Sweet Dreams documentary tells of Rwanda’s first women’s drumming group. And the ice cream? Delightful!
Celebrating so many things at Rwanda’s only ice cream shop
Day 7 – By now I should have figured that we would be heading off to another day of unforgettable sights and interactions. Our first stop was a visit to the home of Damas Gisimba. Damas was too ill to join us for the Orphanage reunion, so we came to him. For Damas, having his life-long friend Carl and a group of teachers gathered on his porch was a “moment from the heart.”
Paying our respects to Damas Gizimba
Our next stop was at MindLeaps, a life-changing organization developed and supported by New York City choreographer Rebecca Davis. The mission statement says it all:
MindLeaps creates dance and educational programs for street children and out-of-school youth in post-conflict and developing countries. MindLeaps uses a kinesthetic-based curriculum to improve the cognitive skills of youth to ensure they can go to school, enter the workplace and leap forward in life.”
Kigali’s program currently supports close to 100 street children, ranging from 9-18 years old. MindLeaps bridges the many divides that homeless children too commonly face. When a child enrolls in the program, the MindLeaps staff provides meals, requires attendance in English and computer classes, and brings the joy, art, and discipline of dance into that child’s life. Children who remain in the program and thrive have the opportunity to be sponsored at a secondary boarding school.
Left to right: MindLeaps students; Founder/Director Rebecca Davis; one last spontaneous dance
We happened to be visiting MindLeaps on home visits day, which meant we were able to split up and join a teacher and a MindLeaps’ student for a walk to the student’s “home.” Travel colleague Kelly Rosati and I joined English teacher Innocent and 12-year old Joseph. Our first stop was at a small stall to purchase rice and beans for the family. We then stepped off the main street and began to wind our way up a steep hillside of mud huts. Joseph lived at the top of the hill, with his mother Josephine and two sisters.
Josephine welcomed us into their one-room home. Despite a lack of common amenities such as water or electricity, she was grateful for this family space. She praised MindLeaps and how this special program could provide a promising future for Joseph. She also praised the work of President Kagame, whose commitment to help improve living conditions made it possible for her to receive free HIV meds.
We boarded the bus for our final visit of the day: the Magelegele TIG Camp. We picked up Pelloy (prison director) on the way. The Magelegele TIG is one of 9 TIG camps remaining in Rwanda and houses 124 prisoners. TIG is a French word for “work camp,” but with the concept of performing work for the general public. Entering the camp was another eye-opening experience. Again, it’s hard for me to imagine “joyful” and “prisoners” in the same sentence. As our bus pulled up and we began to unload, we were greeted by an energizing welcome, as the video below captures:
There is no fence surrounding the TIG. The camp guards are not armed. The camp prisoners maintain a garden, prepare meals – as well as work on projects out in the community. On Sundays they can put on civilian clothing and attend local churches. They are also allowed 10 days per year to return home to their families. Restorative justice in action.
Final good-byes – Magelegele TIG Camp, Rwanda. Photo by JP Bennett.
As we headed back to Kigali, just when it seemed an amazing day could not be any more amazing, Carl shared that we had a dinner reservation at Heaven. To find out more about this 5-star restaurant, founded by two expats determined to contribute to Rwanda’s rebuilding, I recommend A Thousand Hills to Heaven. The Millennium Village is also a result of their vision and hard work. The restaurant’s stunning views and fabulous food were truly the icing on an extraordinary day.
Day 8 – Our nickname for Carl was “master key” because he opened so many doors for us. Day 8 was no exception. Our first outing was to the Presidential Compound, where, after passing through security, we were graciously welcomed to sit and meet with Clare Akamanzi, Director of Strategic Planning. Over tea and breakfast snacks, she led a discussion on President Kagame’s vision for Rwanda:
Unite – one people; everyone has a part of everything
Accountability – to each other; the government to the people
Thinking big – with overcoming poverty a connecting thread
Kagame has set a goal of “one cow per family,” improving education, improving health care. The stats are already impressive: 95% of Rwandan children are attending primary school; 90% of the population has health insurance; malaria has been reduced by 70%.
Clare also addressed the controversial question of President Kagame serving a third term: “Why take away your biggest asset?”
Her message for our students:
“Be concerned. Know what happened in Rwanda.” “Look at how people rise against all odds, like a plant rising from ashes.”
The U.S. Embassy is a short drive from the from the Presidential Compound and was our second stop of the morning. We had the privilege of meeting with Ambassador Erica J. Barks-Ruggles. The Ambassador compared Rwanda to an onion: “Pull off a layer and you find more. Every time you think you understand what’s happening, something new arises.” She also stated that Rwandans who are over 22 have PTSD. “You can’t get over the genocide because it’s absorbed in your own story.”
The question of teaching Rwandan students about the genocide was raised. It is supposed to be taught in grade 6. I can’t imagine a more challenging curriculum. How do you teach a topic when both the victims and perpetrators are alive and present?!
Our last stop was to visit Pastor Seraya, one of Carl’s larger-than-life heroes, “the best example of servant leadership.” During the genocide, Pastor Seraya, also with the Adventist Church, was targeted by the Interahamwe because he had lived in the Congo and spoke English, two traits common to the rebel RPF (Rwandan Patriotic Front) forces. The pastor and his wife hid in Carl’s home. On a daily basis, the pastor provided guidance and advice to Carl. His wife left the safety of their home almost daily to forage and bargain for food and supplies.
Pastor Seraya’s message for educators:
“Moving on is to forget; moving forward is to learn from.” “The power of the word is like a fire. If it is a kind word, it warms. If it is a negative word, it destroys.”
In front of the Iris with Pastor Seraya
Day 9 – On this morning of our last full day in Rwanda, we set out for what we knew would be a tough visit: the Mahama Refugee Camp, “home for now” for over 20,000 refugees from Burundi. But how amazing that about midway on our drive, we noticed a team of cyclists coming up the hill, quickly gaining on our bus. Carl called to Peter to pull over. We were about to witness the Rwandan Men’s National Cycling team in action – a team that rose from the ashes to move Rwanda into the Olympic arena (You really want to watch this short trailer!), demonstrating that anything is possible.
Before entering the refugee camp, we stopped first at at a newly constructed school built by the Adventist Development and Relief Agency (ADRA) in collaboration with the United Nations High Commission for Refugees (UNHCR). The school is for the refugee children, but also for the local Rwandan children from the surrounding community. This week was actually a holiday for the students, but a group of students arrived to take advantage of special classes to prepare for upcoming national exams. Thanks to the combined efforts of ADRA and UNHCR, the students have access to many services, including tutoring, lunches, and uniforms.
Public school for Burundian refugee children – walking distance from Mahama Refugee Camp.
As I walked through several classrooms, I saw the power of words (via chalk) to portray tough realities, but also to inspire more promising futures.
Finding the good – from “deep doo-doo” ( “We are in deep doo-doo but someday we’ll be rescued by our mighty God.” ) to Bob Marley (“Don’t worry about a thing, cuz every little thing is gonna be alright…”).
The school visit served as an introduction to the Mahama Refugee Camp. Like the school, Mahama was quickly constructed in 2015 in response to the wave of refugees entering from Burundi. Our guides gave us a brief overview of the camp and program and then invited us to tour the camp. We were asked not to take photos, but this short YouTube video will give you an idea of how quickly the camp has grown over the year.
The camp is organized in a progression of housing options. Refugees enter the camp in what are referred to as “hanger tents,” long rows of connected tents, with many families under the same extended canvas roof. After screening for health issues and completing the registration process, they move on to more house-like tent structures, which shelter two families, separated by a canvas dividing sheet. The goal is for refugees to eventually move to semi-permanent homes, which they help construct.
Again, the UNHCR and ADRA work together to provide food, medical services, and education. I think much credit also goes to Rwanda, accepting and welcoming refugees when the country is still recovering from their own national crisis. Life is tough in Mahama, but refugees were maximizing and making do with very little. I wish I had a picture of their tiered wedding-cake-style gardens, for instance, which were scattered throughout the camp. Vegetables and herbs were planted in each layer, but watering happened on the top layer, so it could trickle down to the other layers. Such a practical use of space and water.
One of my favorite Mahama stories was shared by fellow traveler Tim Redmond. As we walked around the camp, we drew quite a crowd of children. Tim was walking alongside our colleague Kelly, who was jotting down notes (in cursive). Behind Kelly, a young girl was following – and fluently reading aloud Kelly’s notes. Despite the challenges of being a refugee, this child was already reading in several languages. Together, Rwanda, UNHCR and ADRA are making the dream of better life a possibility for Mahama’s refugees.
Our last stop of the day was to ADRA headquarters, just outside the camp to drop off donations we brought with us from the States for the refugees. I know that my donation of clothing and art supplies will be put to good use and greatly appreciated. So proud to be a part of this incredible group of educators and humanitarians!
Dropping of donations to ADRA office outside of Mahama Refugee Camp.
Day 10 – Everyday of our journey, Carl would remind us that we would witness both the worst and the best of humanity. Our last day was a huge dose of the best. Our drive to the airport included a stop at an outlying neighborhood that was hosting a cow-distribution ceremony. The ceremony was sponsored by Carl’s friend Amiel, a fellow ADRA worker and genocide survivor, who, in 2008, founded Life Lifting Hands. Across the region, Amiel’s team helps buy cows from neighboring communities to distribute to needy families, one cow per family. A cow represents a lifeline to a poor Rwandan family, as it provides multiple benefits (milk for children, income from selling milk, manure for vegetable gardens, and ultimately money for selling’s a cow’s offspring).
Such a joyous occasion, with music and dancing throughout the ceremony – and Kigali children learning a few new dance moves:
Taking part in the cow distribution ceremony was a perfect exit ticket to an unforgettable trip.
Kigali cow distribution ceremony – Life Lifting Hands at work.
As we headed into the Kigali Airport to start the long flight(s) home, I think we all realized that, given the awe-inspiring sights and experiences of the last 10 days and the bond we had formed as a group, in many ways our journeys were just beginning. Thanks to email, Facebook, phone calls, and videoconferencing, the shared conversations continue, starting with the topic of how we will incorporate the lessons and reflections from Rwanda into our teaching assignments. I’ve already connected with several outstanding high school teachers in my district to discuss projects, resources, and curriculum to ensure that students know what happened in Rwanda, the importance of looking for the good, and understanding that a single person can cross the line from bystander to upstander to change the course of history.
I wake up every morning so very grateful for having made the trip to Rwanda and looking for ways to pass on the experience, inspiration, and lessons learned.
I’ve never been to Rwanda. Ever since the 100-day genocide – and after watching Hotel Rwanda – I’ve followed news stories, always hoping to better understand how survivors find the resilience to return to “life as normal.”
At last, I am traveling from California to Rwanda….virtually. Thanks to the vision and determination of my amazing National Writing Project colleague and HEN partner Pam Bodnar, I will be able to join her students as they blog about the sights visited and personal insights experienced. I’ve added the Rwanda Trip 2012 blog to my RSS reader and am really looking forward to joining in the conversations and learning from both Pam’s students and Sacramento USD friend Jeremy Pretko’s students, who are also part of the AfriPeace organization.
But how do you prepare high school students to listen to and experience the first-hand accounts of 100 days of death and destruction as neighbor turned against neighbor in an effort to eliminate an entire group of people? I think back to my college days when on a trip to Munich, Germany, I ventured to the Dachau concentration camp, with little more preparation on the topic of genocide than having read the Diary of Anne Frank as a 7th grader and maybe a page or two about the Holocaust in a college textbook. I was emotionally and physically ill for hours following the tour.
Pam’s students are prepared. Although now in high school, as 8th graders, they studied the Holocaust not only in their U.S. History class, but also as part of Pam’s Peer Mediators Team. They delved into the events that led up to the exclusion, forced removal, and murder of over 6 million Jews and other “undesirables” during World War II. But they did not study the Holocaust as an isolated event on a timeline that happened “then and there.” Instead they researched connections from “then and there” to “here and now.” Events including the genocides in Rwanda and Bosnia, as well as the internment of Japanese-Americans during WWII. They approached events of the past and recent past as a call to social action. They became “change writers.”
I hope you will join me in following the Rwanda Trip 2012 students in what I already know will be a highlight of the summer and a testimony to the power of youth to make a difference.